Did Hurricane Wilma have 209 mph sustained winds?

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:00 PM GMT en Abril 28, 2012

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At last week's 30th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology of the American Meteorological Society, Dr. Eric Uhlhorn of NOAA's Hurricane Research Division presented a poster that looked at the relationship between surface winds measured by the SFMR instrument and flight-level winds in two Category 5 storms. Hurricane Hunter flights done into Category 5 Supertyphoon Megi (17 October 2010) and Category 5 Hurricane Felix (03 September 2007) found that the surface winds measured by SFMR were greater than those measured at flight level (10,000 feet.) Usually, surface winds in a hurricane are 10 - 15% less than at 10,000 feet, but he showed that in super-intense Category 5 storms with small eyes, the dynamics of these situations may generate surface winds that are as strong or stronger than those found at 10,000 feet. He extrapolated this statistical relationship (using the inertial stability measured at flight level) to Hurricane Wilma of 2005, which was the strongest hurricane on record (882 mb), but was not observed by the SFMR. He estimated that the maximum wind averaged around the eyewall in Wilma at peak intensity could have been 209 mph, plus or minus 20 mph--so conceivably as high as 229 mph, with gusts to 270 mph. Yowza. That's well in excess of the 200 mph minimum wind speed a top end EF-5 tornado has. The Joplin, Missouri EF-5 tornado of May 22, 2011 had winds estimated at 225 - 250 mph. That tornado ripped pavement from the ground, leveled buildings to the concrete slabs they were built on, and killed 161 people. It's not a pretty thought to consider what Wilma would have done to Cancun, Key West, or Fort Myers had the hurricane hit with sustained winds of what the Joplin tornado had.


Figure 1. Hurricane Wilma's pinhole eye as seen at 8:22 a.m. CDT Wednesday, Oct. 19, 2005, by the crew aboard NASA's international space station as the complex flew 222 miles above the storm. At the time, Wilma was the strongest Atlantic hurricane in history, with a central pressure of 882 mb and sustained surface winds estimated at 185 mph. The storm was located in the Caribbean Sea, 340 miles southeast of Cozumel, Mexico. Image source: NASA's Space Photo Gallery.


Figure 2. Damage in Joplin, Missouri after the EF-5 tornado of May 22, 2011. Image credit: wunderphotographer thebige.

Official all-time strongest winds in an Atlantic hurricane: 190 mph
The official record for strongest winds in an Atlantic hurricane is 190 mph, for Hurricane Allen of 1980 as it was entering the Gulf of Mexico, and for Hurricane Camille of 1969, as it was making landfall in Pass Christian, Mississippi. In Dr. Bob Sheets' and Jack Williams' book, Hurricane Watch, they recount the Hurricane Hunters flight into Camile as the hurricane reached peak intensity: On Sunday afternoon, August 17, and Air Force C-130 piloted by Marvin Little penetrated Camille's eye and measured a pressure of 26.62 inches of mercury. "Just as we were nearing the eyewall cloud we suddenly broke into a clear area and could see the sea surface below," the copilot, Robert Lee Clark, wrote in 1982. "What a sight! Although everyone on the crew was experienced except me, no one had seen the wind whip the sea like that before...Instead of the green and white splotches normally found in a storm, the sea surface was in deep furrows running along the wind direction....The velocity was beyond the descriptions used in our training and far beyond anything we had ever seen." So, the 190 mph winds of Camille were an estimate that was off the scale from anything that had ever been observed in the past. The books that the Hurricane Hunters carried, filled with photos of the sea state at various wind speeds, only goes up to 150 mph (Figure 2). I still used this book to estimate surface winds when I flew with the Hurricane Hunters in the late 1980s, and the books are still carried on the planes today. In the two Category 5 hurricanes I flew into, Hugo and Gilbert, I never observed the furrowing effect referred to above. Gilbert had surface winds estimated at 175 mph based on what we measured at flight level, so I believe the 190 mph wind estimate in Camille may be reasonable.


Figure 3. Appearance of the sea surface in winds of 130 knots (150 mph). Image credit: Wind Estimations from Aerial Observations of Sea Conditions (1954), by Charlie Neumann.


Figure 4. Radar image of Hurricane Camille taken at 22:15 UTC August 17, 1969, a few hours before landfall in Mississippi. At the time, Camille had the highest sustained winds of any Atlantic hurricane in history--190 mph.

The infamous hurricane hunter flight into Wilma during its rapid intensification
While I was at last week's conference, I had a conversation with Rich Henning, a flight meteorologist for NOAA's Hurricane Hunters, who served for many years as a Air Reconnaissance Weather Officer (ARWO) for the Air Force Hurricane Hunters. Rich told me the story of the Air Force Hurricane Hunter mission into Hurricane Wilma in the early morning hours of October 19, 2005, as Wilma entered its explosive deepening phase. The previous airplane, which had departed Category 1 Wilma six hours previously, flew through Wilma at an altitude of 5,000 feet. They measured a central pressure of 954 mb when they departed the eye at 23:10 UTC. The crew of the new plane assumed that the hurricane, though intensifying, was probably not a major hurricane, and decided that they would also go in at 5,000 feet. Winds outside the eyewall were less than hurricane force, so this seemed like a reasonable assumption. Once the airplane hit the eyewall, they realized their mistake. Flight level winds quickly rose to 186 mph, far in excess of Category 5 strength, and severe turbulence rocked the aircraft. The aircraft was keeping a constant pressure altitude to maintain their height above the ocean during the penetration, but the area of low pressure at Wilma's center was so intense that the airplane descended at over 1,000 feet per minute during the penetration in order to maintain a constant pressure altitude. By they time they punched into the incredibly tiny 4-mile wide eye, which had a central pressure of just 901 mb at 04:32 UTC, the plane was at a dangerously low altitude of 1,500 feet--not a good idea in a Category 5 hurricane. The pilot ordered an immediate climb, and the plane exited the other side of Wilma's eyewall at an altitude of 10,000 feet. They maintained this altitude for the remainder of the flight. During their next pass through the eye at 06:11 UTC, the diameter of the eye had shrunk to an incredibly tiny two miles--the smallest hurricane eye ever measured. During their third and final pass through the eye at 0801 UTC, a dropsonde found a central pressure of 882 mb--the lowest pressure ever observed in an Atlantic hurricane. In the span of just 24 hours, Wilma had intensified from a 70 mph tropical storm to a 175 mph category 5 hurricane--an unprecedented event for an Atlantic hurricane. Since the pressure was still falling, it is likely that Wilma became even stronger after the mission departed.

I'll have a new post by Tuesday at the latest.

Jeff Masters

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The current Severe Thunderstorm Warning for the storm was cancelled, meaning they are probably planning to issue a Tornado Warning.
Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
Quoting hurricanehunter27:
Have had to say this 3 times this year but Greensburg needs to watch out. Cell to its South West is starting to acquire decent rotation.

And of course the part that could produce a tornado is heading right at Greensburg, as always.
Member Since: Febrero 11, 2012 Posts: 84 Comments: 7967
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
The storm northeast of Bucklin should become tornado warned soon.

Greensburg is on a collision course with the main rotation.
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1578 aspectre: This 15inch(38centimetre)wide TasmanianKingCrab weighing 15pounds(6.8kilograms)...
1586 Grothar: Wow, that picture wants to make me go melt some butter.

The crab will probably appreciate your thoughtfulness as he dips you in.
Member Since: Agosto 21, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 4860


MESOSCALE DISCUSSION 0636
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
0611 PM CDT MON APR 30 2012

AREAS AFFECTED...MUCH OF W TX -- FROM SOUTH-PLAINS TO BIG BEND AND
EWD TOWARD LOW ROLLING PLAINS...CONCHO VALLEY AND DRT AREA.

CONCERNING...SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH 209...210...

VALID 302311Z - 010115Z

THE SEVERE WEATHER THREAT FOR SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH
209...210...CONTINUES.

CLUSTERS AND BANDS OF SVR TSTMS NOW OVER WW AREAS MAY PERSIST
FARTHER E ACROSS PORTIONS NW/W-CENTRAL/SW TX WITH DAMAGING
HAIL/GUSTS BEING PRINCIPAL CONCERNS. ANOTHER WW MAY BE REQUIRED FOR
SOME PORTIONS OF CORRIDOR FROM SPS-DRT.

SFC MESOANALYSIS SHOWS WAVY DRYLINE OVER WRN PANHANDLE THEN SSEWD TO
JUST S LBB...THEN SSWWD TO NRN FRINGES OF LARGE TSTM COMPLEX BETWEEN
FST AND BIG BEND. YOUNGER BUT GROWING TSTM BAND...OVER CAPROCK
REGION E LBB...SHOULD MERGE WITH CONVECTION DEVELOPING TO ITS SW
ACROSS MAF-BPG AREA. EACH RESULTING MCS SHOULD GROW/DEEPEN ITS COLD
POOL...WHILE FORWARD-PROPAGATING EWD INTO BOUNDARY LAYER
CHARACTERIZED BY FAVORABLE DEWPOINT DEPRESSIONS AND MIXING FOR
MAINTAINING DAMAGING GUST THREAT. PRE-STORM MLCAPE 2000-3000 J/KG
IS EVIDENT ACROSS MUCH OF THIS AREA...BASED ON MODIFIED RAOBS AND
RUC SOUNDINGS. STRONGER CINH IS APPARENT AHEAD OF SRN
COMPLEX...WHERE EML BASE WARMTH IS MAXIMIZED IN 700-750 MB LAYER.
STORM-SCALE FORCED ASCENT ALONG LEADING EDGE OF COLD POOL SHOULD
OVERCOME THAT FOR SOME UNCERTAIN DISTANCE EWD ACROSS SW TX BEFORE
MCS DISSIPATES. VERTICAL WIND PROFILES ALSO FAVOR POTENTIAL FOR
SUPERCELLS PRODUCING GIANT/DAMAGING HAIL...WHEREVER STORMS CAN
REMAIN RELATIVELY DISCRETE THROUGH MATURE STAGE...WITH 40-50 KT
EFFECTIVE SHEAR MAGNITUDES NEAR CAPROCK. 4.25 INCH STONES ALREADY
REPORTED IN BORDEN COUNTY AROUND 2230Z.

..EDWARDS.. 04/30/2012


ATTN...WFO...FWD...OUN...EWX...SJT...LUB...MAF...

LAT...LON 29520278 29920304 30080373 30350277 30940268 31570271
33570247 34100232 34229958 34159889 32889903 32119909
30779978 29610028 28270028 28440032 28770052 29110071
29300086 29520121 29770143 29800189 29770211 29880231
29750232 29730264 29520278
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The storm northeast of Bucklin should become tornado warned soon.

Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
Have had to say this 3 times this year but Greensburg needs to watch out. Cell to its South West is starting to acquire decent rotation.
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The potential tornado producing storm is heading almost due west, but another severe storm southeast of it is heading northwest... the two are on a collision course, so this may choke the tornadic storm off
Member Since: Febrero 11, 2012 Posts: 84 Comments: 7967
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
We have tornadogenesis going on in Kansas.

Tornado Warned again...

Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
Northern one is really winding up. Southern one also seems like it wants to produce.
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BULLETIN - EAS ACTIVATION REQUESTED
TORNADO WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DODGE CITY KS
620 PM CDT MON APR 30 2012

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN DODGE CITY HAS ISSUED A

* TORNADO WARNING FOR...
WEST CENTRAL EDWARDS COUNTY IN SOUTH CENTRAL KANSAS...
NORTHEASTERN FORD COUNTY IN SOUTHWEST KANSAS...
SOUTHEASTERN HODGEMAN COUNTY IN SOUTHWEST KANSAS...

* UNTIL 645 PM CDT

* AT 616 PM CDT...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DOPPLER RADAR INDICATED
VERY STRONG ROTATION ASSOCIATED WITH A POSSIBLE TORNADO 4 MILES
NORTHWEST OF SPEARVILLE. THIS DANGEROUS STORM WAS MOVING EAST AT 30
MPH. PING PONG BALL SIZE HAIL IS ALSO EXPECTED WITH THIS STORM.

* LOCATIONS IMPACTED INCLUDE...
SPEARVILLE...BELLEFONT AND OFFERLE.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

TAKE COVER NOW. MOVE TO AN INTERIOR ROOM ON THE LOWEST FLOOR OF A
STURDY BUILDING. AVOID WINDOWS. IF IN A MOBILE HOME...A VEHICLE OR
OUTDOORS...MOVE TO THE CLOSEST SUBSTANTIAL SHELTER AND PROTECT
YOURSELF FROM FLYING DEBRIS.

&&

LAT...LON 3801 9951 3783 9947 3783 9986 3795 9986
TIME...MOT...LOC 2320Z 267DEG 26KT 3789 9977
HAIL 1.50IN

$$

SUGDEN
Member Since: Febrero 11, 2012 Posts: 84 Comments: 7967
We have tornadogenesis going on in Kansas.
Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
1619. docrod
Approaching a total of 1 foot of rain here in Key Colony Beach (FL) in my very unofficial bucket. The total amount of rain likely varies a lot from one mile marker to the next. Happy to report no roof leaks!

- take care
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1618. ncstorm
Hey Guys..lonnnng work day! I see we got some tornado activity!
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If a tornadic storm has to happen, this is just about the right distance for it to be from the radar site. Not too close, but close enough for you to almost be seeing what is on the ground. It is also the distance where you can get TSs instead of TVSs (with superres), which are stronger indicators of tornadic activity and better representations of circulation diameter.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Current Effective Storm Relative Helicity:



Current Mid-level LCL Heights:



Current Surface-based CAPE:


Overall, it looks like the Texas Panhandle is a good place to be for very large hail, damaging winds, and isolated tornadoes. The HRRR had some large supercells blowing up there around this timeframe.
Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
A storm in south central Arkansas heading for Pine Bluff has developed a hook
Member Since: Febrero 11, 2012 Posts: 84 Comments: 7967
Quoting MAweatherboy1:
The tornado warning has expired... we'll see if a new one is issued


Would imagine another is coming soon. This storm seems to be going through very rapid cycles with decent-sized tornadic circulation dying off within 1 radar scan and vice-versa. New circulation already is evident at upper tilts just east of the old occluded one.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Current Effective Storm Relative Helicity:



Current Mid-level LCL Heights:



Current Surface-based CAPE:

Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
2257Z: Major RFD punch seems to have killed the circulation. Was there for one scan. Peak-to-peak width was roughly 0.75mi in diameter (not necessarily the damage width on the ground).
Major hailstorm probably going on right now in the area where the circulation was located. Worst of the hail is in the hook where water content is minimal; heavy rain mixed with hail in the FFD north of the circulation.
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The tornado warning has expired... we'll see if a new one is issued
Member Since: Febrero 11, 2012 Posts: 84 Comments: 7967
Quoting ScottLincoln:
2252Z: Another TS.... beam at ~500ft AGL. Likely tornado or forming tornado hail/rain-wrapped.
Very impressive.
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Quoting ScottLincoln:
2243Z: The TS is gone. Was basically there for one scan. That most-likely means that there was a brief tornado or a near touch-down, which has since occluded.

In the meantime, looking at the dual-pol moments in regards to hail is quite interesting. Some of the areas with the highest BR also have ZDR near 0.0dBz... implying larger hailstones with little rainfall present. Rainfall is not spherical and thus gets more return from the horizontal than the vertical (ZDR >0.0dBz).
At the same time, there is a reduction in RHO/CC, implying something of irregular shape. Sometimes can be debris, other times can be large, irregular hail that is tumbling.
KDP is used to measure water content, and in those areas of lower RHO/CC and near 0.0 for ZDR we have low KDP.
Verdict: not much water, but large hail.
Dual-pol is amazing. Maybe the upgrade will be worth it.
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1583 LargoFl: ...I cannot imagine the fun it would be hooking then pulling in that fish, must take hours.

They're not known for putting up a good fight against being hauled in, so I don't know why anyone would take an oarfish in the first place. Certainly their meat isn't anything that anyone would eat out of preference over a serving of any other fish.

BTW: Large numbers of oarfish were seen in the waters of and from the beaches of Japan between December'09 thru March'10. In Japanese folklore, they're known as Messengers from the Sea God's Palace... and their appearance is said to portend earthquakes.
So I guess Florida should expect its own Tsunami sometime soon.
Member Since: Agosto 21, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 4860
2252Z: Another TS.... beam at ~500ft AGL. Likely tornado or forming tornado hail/rain-wrapped.

Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Hail with little rainfall? That's cool.


I've experienced it once or twice before. Very strange sensation when it happens... it just doesn't seem right. One time we were aware from the core and under the anvil. Updraft was strong enough to basically fling it out of the FFD and RFD regions.
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Quoting ScottLincoln:
2243Z: The TS is gone. Was basically there for one scan. That most-likely means that there was a brief tornado or a near touch-down, which has since occluded.

In the meantime, looking at the dual-pol moments in regards to hail is quite interesting. Some of the areas with the highest BR also have ZDR near 0.0dBz... implying larger hailstones with little rainfall present. Rainfall is not spherical and thus gets more return from the horizontal than the vertical (ZDR >0.0dBz).

Hail with little rainfall? That's cool.
Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
2243Z: The TS is gone. Was basically there for one scan. That most-likely means that there was a brief tornado or a near touch-down, which has since occluded.

In the meantime, looking at the dual-pol moments in regards to hail is quite interesting. Some of the areas with the highest BR also have ZDR near 0.0dBz... implying larger hailstones with little rainfall present. Rainfall is not spherical and thus gets more return from the horizontal than the vertical (ZDR >0.0dBz).
At the same time, there is a reduction in RHO/CC, implying something of irregular shape. Sometimes can be debris, other times can be large, irregular hail that is tumbling.
KDP is used to measure water content, and in those areas of lower RHO/CC and near 0.0 for ZDR we have low KDP.
Verdict: not much water, but large hail.
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Quoting hurricanehunter27:
Getting a bit to close to the radar site.

Yeah I hate when that happens... Really messes the image up
Member Since: Febrero 11, 2012 Posts: 84 Comments: 7967
BULLETIN - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
TORNADO WATCH OUTLINE UPDATE FOR WT 212
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
545 PM CDT MON APR 30 2012

TORNADO WATCH 212 IS IN EFFECT UNTIL 200 AM CDT FOR THE
FOLLOWING LOCATIONS

KSC007-025-033-047-055-057-069-081-083-097-101-119 -135-145-151-
165-171-175-185-010700-
/O.NEW.KWNS.TO.A.0212.120430T2245Z-120501T0700Z/

KS
. KANSAS COUNTIES INCLUDED ARE

BARBER CLARK COMANCHE
EDWARDS FINNEY FORD
GRAY HASKELL HODGEMAN
KIOWA LANE MEADE
NESS PAWNEE PRATT
RUSH SCOTT SEWARD
STAFFORD


OKC003-007-009-011-039-043-045-055-057-059-065-075 -093-129-149-
151-153-010700-
/O.NEW.KWNS.TO.A.0212.120430T2245Z-120501T0700Z/

OK
. OKLAHOMA COUNTIES INCLUDED ARE

ALFALFA BEAVER BECKHAM
BLAINE CUSTER DEWEY
ELLIS GREER HARMON
HARPER JACKSON KIOWA
MAJOR ROGER MILLS WASHITA
WOODS WOODWARD


TXC011-045-065-075-087-129-179-191-197-211-233-295 -357-375-381-
393-437-483-010700-
/O.NEW.KWNS.TO.A.0212.120430T2245Z-120501T0700Z/

TX
. TEXAS COUNTIES INCLUDED ARE

ARMSTRONG BRISCOE CARSON
CHILDRESS COLLINGSWORTH DONLEY
GRAY HALL HARDEMAN
HEMPHILL HUTCHINSON LIPSCOMB
OCHILTREE POTTER RANDALL
ROBERTS SWISHER WHEELER


ATTN...WFO...DDC...AMA...LUB...OUN...
Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
1602. fsumet
On NWS Miami Facebook page:
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Quoting MAweatherboy1:
That storm near Dodge City is pretty impressive...
Getting a bit to close to the radar site.
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That storm near Dodge City is pretty impressive...
Member Since: Febrero 11, 2012 Posts: 84 Comments: 7967
Ed Oneal is on the supercell in Kansas, as previously mentioned.
Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553

Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Yeah, but you have to pay the $120 upgrade. I would just upgrade to GRlevel3 v.2 which is expected to be released around May 21...it will contain the simple dual-pol stuff and only costs $40 to upgrade from the current GRlevel3.



Resolution will probably be reduced. I prefer the raw data. Considering the amount of effort that Mike Gibson has to put into his software, $120 is cheap by comparison.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Yeah, but you have to pay the $120 upgrade. I would just upgrade to GRlevel3 v.2 which is expected to be released around May 21...it will contain the simple dual-pol stuff and come with a $40 upgrade from the current GRlevel3.
So expensive.
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Ed Oneal has a rapidly rotating wall cloud.
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Quoting hurricanehunter27:
Are they offering Dual-Pol level 2 data?

Yeah, but you have to pay the $120 upgrade. I would just upgrade to GRlevel3 v.2 which is expected to be released around May 21...it will contain the simple dual-pol stuff and only costs $40 to upgrade from the current GRlevel3.
Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
1594. LargoFl
ok uyou did good with the oar fish, lets see how well you do with these lol..i cannot believe it.....Link
Member Since: Agosto 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 41108
Quoting ScottLincoln:
Anyone that wants a good shot to see a Tornado Signature (TS) on NEXRAD, as well as possible dual pol indications of a tornado, should switch their GR2Analysts to KDDC now.

Beam is sampling a rapidly developing circulation from a newly-formed RFD at less than 1000ft just 10mi from Dodge City, KS.
Ok thank you so much.
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Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

I need to upgrade to dual-pol...
Are they offering Dual-Pol level 2 data?
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Quoting ScottLincoln:


It's impressive, but to put it in perspective, take another look at the reliability diagram for the hail algorithm. A 5.0" (~125mm) hailstone corresponds to about 1100 J/(m)(s) on the Severe Hail Index (SHI) equation for Maximum Estimated Hail Size (MEHS). But from the cases analyzed in the paper, the hail size distribution for an SHI of 1100 was about 20-80mm (0.8-3.1 inches). That's quite a spread.

Bottom line... the algorithm used in GR2Analyst is probably one of the best out there that uses single-pol radar data. There are other good ones too, but I think the SHI technique is near the top. But with that said, I have seen that thing go nuts - 3",4", something 5" values yet reports range from 1-3" because it is prolific amounts of smaller, wet hail and water+ice absorbs/re-emits the radar pulses far more efficiently than ice.
Speaking of hail this guy out in TX is quite the producer.
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Quoting ScottLincoln:
Anyone that wants a good shot to see a Tornado Signature (TS) on NEXRAD, as well as possible dual pol indications of a tornado, should switch their GR2Analysts to KDDC now.

Beam is sampling a rapidly developing circulation from a newly-formed RFD at less than 1000ft just 10mi from Dodge City, KS.

I need to upgrade to dual-pol...
Member Since: Julio 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32553
1588. Grothar
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Who are you to judge a fish, Gro? That wasn't very nice...the fish has feelings to!


I didn't mean anything by it. It just reminded me of one of my nephews.
Member Since: Julio 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26948
Anyone that wants a good shot to see a Tornado Signature (TS) on NEXRAD, as well as possible dual pol indications of a tornado, should switch their GR2Analysts to KDDC now.

Beam is sampling a rapidly developing circulation from a newly-formed RFD at less than 1000ft just 10mi from Dodge City, KS.
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1586. Grothar
Quoting aspectre:
This 15inch(38centimetre)wide TasmanianKingCrab weighing 15pounds(6.8kilograms) was saved from the cooking pot by a British aquarium worker, then donated to SeaLifePark in the UK. When fully grown, he'll weigh ~30pounds(13.6kilograms) and be ~18inches(46centimetres)wide.

Due to focal-length lens-distortion, the crab's size is enlarged in comparison to the human behind it, but looking at the fingertips (seen between each of the claws) will give you a better idea of its real size.


Wow, that picture wants to make me go melt some butter.
Member Since: Julio 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26948
Quoting hurricanehunter27:
Thanks for the info. You have to admit that 5.00inch measurements are very impressive.


It's impressive, but to put it in perspective, take another look at the reliability diagram for the hail algorithm. A 5.0" (~125mm) hailstone corresponds to about 1100 J/(m)(s) on the Severe Hail Index (SHI) equation for Maximum Estimated Hail Size (MEHS). But from the cases analyzed in the paper, the hail size distribution for an SHI of 1100 was about 20-80mm (0.8-3.1 inches). That's quite a spread.

Bottom line... the algorithm used in GR2Analyst is probably one of the best out there that uses single-pol radar data. There are other good ones too, but I think the SHI technique is near the top. But with that said, I have seen that thing go nuts - 3",4", something 5" values yet reports range from 1-3" because it is prolific amounts of smaller, wet hail and water+ice absorbs/re-emits the radar pulses far more efficiently than ice.
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Quoting Neapolitan:
I was in Nassau from Friday afternoon until this morning, and I can vouch that it was miserable. Rain and wind, followed by rain and wind, followed by rain and wind. And now that I'm back in Florida, it's sunny and calm rainy and windy. Go figure. :-\ But I'm glad you guys finally got some sun anyway...

Cadiz/Jerez:-
Friday Rain wind,
Staturday Rain, Wind,
Sunday, Moto GP Rain, wind, cold.
Monday Thunder storms, wind, Fog.
So much for our drough?
We got about 6 inches of rain in 4 days
Manaña Sol!
Member Since: Enero 21, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2101
1583. LargoFl
Quoting aspectre:
1565 LargoFl: When you fish here in florida, beware...

Juvenile oarfish, I assume.
Here's what a more fully grown adult looks like.
yes your right, i cannot imagine the fun it would be hooking then pulling in that fish, must take hours
Member Since: Agosto 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 41108
Quoting KoritheMan:


Hey! Do you have something against rain and wind? >:(
Not normally. But we had to take care of some outdoor work, so, for this past weekend, at least, I did have something against it. ;-)
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Quoting Neapolitan:
I was in Nassau from Friday afternoon until this morning, and I can vouch that it was miserable. Rain and wind, followed by rain and wind, followed by rain and wind. And now that I'm back in Florida, it's sunny and calm rainy and windy. Go figure. :-\ But I'm glad you guys finally got some sun anyway...


Hey! Do you have something against rain and wind? >:(
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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